5.2 Tuckman’s Stages of Team Development

As groups work toward becoming teams, they tend to go through certain predictable stages of growth and regression. An awareness of the stages of group development is important, particularly for facilitators assisting teams during times of transition.

Several models of group development are available in the literature. Tuckman summarized the results of over fifty studies into the following five-stage model:

Stage 1:u00a0 Formingu00a0

Characteristics:u00a0 testing and independence

Stage 2: Stormingu00a0

Characteristics: intra-team conflict

Stage 3: Norming

Characteristics: development of team cohesion

Stage 4:u00a0 Performing

Characteristics: functional role relationships

Stage 4: Adjourning

Characteristics: closure and termination